This article discusses funding for early childhood education in the USA. While it doesn’t cover all of the details, it does provide an overview of these programs and how they compare.
Public vs. private system
In the United States, the public vs. private early childhood education system is largely defined by the amount of funding allocated to early childhood education. Public preschool programs generally serve children of low-income families. By contrast, private preschool programs tend to serve children from all backgrounds. They are also more likely to focus on the child’s needs than the family’s.
In 2003, almost eighty percent of five-year-olds were enrolled in public kindergartens and only 17 percent attended private kindergarten programs. In contrast, almost half of five-year-olds enrolled in private nursery schools. The public and private sectors compete for children’s attention.
Federal vs. state funding for early childhood education in the USA
Funding for early childhood education in the USA varies by state. In most states, state funding comes from general fund appropriations, which are allocated through the state’s legislative budgeting process. These funds are geared toward high-priority initiatives. States can also apply for block grants to target additional funds to specific programs.
Federal programs in early childhood education are spread across multiple federal agencies, including the Departments of Health and Human Services and Agriculture. Each program has different goals, eligibility requirements, and quality standards.
ECEC programs funded by states
ECEC programs have become more popular in recent years, spurred by various factors, including the growing need for quality child care and education. The expansion of these programs has also been helped by advances in child development and labor market policy. These programs help poor and welfare-dependent parents reach economic independence while also enabling parents to fulfill their roles as teachers. However, there are some concerns regarding the role of the state in these programs.
ECEC programs are often supported by multiple funding sources. Approximately 55 percent of state-funded programs reported using at least one additional funding source in 2018, and some reported using two or more. Integrating state funds with federal and local funds may help broaden the reach of the services provided. However, program officials also noted that this type of funding does have its challenges.
The head start program
Head Start programs provide early childhood education and training for children ages three to five. The majority of these programs take place in center-based settings, though some operate in homes. They provide nutritious meals, health screenings, and other services that help prepare children for kindergarten. Head Start also provides parents with assistance in their careers and home life, including resources for raising children and establishing healthy lifestyles.
Head Start services more than one million children and 28,000 families nationwide. The program employs over 225,000 teachers and staff. The organization also has over 20,000 classrooms in communities across the United States.
Parent co-op programs
In the United States, parent co-op programs allow parents to participate in their child’s education. These programs are especially helpful for working parents or those who have flexible hours. These programs are operated by experienced teachers who work with the children and parents, developing the curriculum and setting up the day’s activities.
These programs have a rich history dating back to 1916 when a group of faculty wives from the University of Chicago set up the first cooperative preschool. They were founded to foster a community spirit and shared education. Many families find these programs a natural extension of their PEPS group, as they share resources and parenting ideas. These programs are often equal parts to child care and adult education.